National Education Policy 2020. Explained Major Key Points. Positives and Negatives of NEP 2020

The Education Ministry unveiled India's groundbreaking new education policy. Here, I am trying to analyse the positives and negatives of this policy.

National Education Policy 2020. Explained Major Key Points. Positives and Negatives of NEP 2020


The New Education Policy passed by the Union Cabinet has addressed all the points of criticism regarding India's Education System. It has been a great revolutionary change in education system.


1. Flexible Subject Option- Generally, our education system tries to fit students in three categories/ stream after passing class X examination - Science, Commerce and Humanities. This is very problematic because if a student got admitted in any one stream then he/ she will not be able to study the subjects of other stream. Usually students have interest in different subjects. But they cannot choose desired subjects to study of their own. But this system has been reformed by NEP 2020. Now students would have much flexibility in choosing their subjects. After the implementation of this policy, one student would be able to study any subject from any stream whether science or arts or commerce. 

2. Academic System Change- Another big breaking reform of NEP 2020 is that the 10+2 academic system has been changed to 5+3+3+4  system. This is very similar to the education system of western developed countries.
In 10+2 system, child's education starts from 6 years of age. But in this new system, child's education will start from the age of 3 years.

New Academic Structure be like:
(Age 3-6)- 3 years for Preschool
(Age 6-8)- 2 years for Class 1 & 2
(Age 8-11)- 3 years for Class 3 to 5- will focus on play, discovery and activity based and interactive classroom learning.
(Age 11-14)- 3 years for Class 6 to 8- will focus on experimental learning in the sciences, mathematics, arts, social sciences and humanities.
(Age 14-18)- 4 years for Class 9 to 12- will focus on multidisciplinary study, greater critical thinking, flexibility and student choice of subjects.

3. Vocational Training- NEP 2020 gives more focus on vocational studies in school-level. Internship opportunities will be provided to students from Class VI itself. There will be a 10- day bagless period where students will not carry their bags to school but will be able to experience the vocational jobs such as Carpentry, Gardening, Plumbing, Artist, Welding, Electrician etc with the experts.

Focusing on vocational education, the government proposes that, in the next ten years it will be integrated in all the schools and higher educational institutions in a phased manner. It is being aimed that by 2025, 50% of the learners in schools and higher educational institutions will have had exposure to vocational education.


4. Coding To Be Taught- NEP 2020 says that Coding will be taught from Class VI onwards as a part of 21st century skills.

5. Board Exam To Be Easier- Importance and Stress of board exam to be reduced and exams can be conducted twice a year. NEP 2020 says that board exam should promote knowledge application rather than parrot learning.

6. Self-Evaluation- According to NEP 2020, report cards will include self-assessment by students in addition to teachers' evaluation sheet. A new National Assessment Centre will be set up as a standard-setting body called PARAKH.

   Self-Evaluation to be a very useful step in our education system because self-assessment is one of the most important aspects of Critical Thinking Skill. This will help in critically analyzing own's decisions in future.

7. Investment- NEP 2020 will invest 6% of GDP in education system. Currently, around 3% of GDP is said to be invested which is insufficient. But a lot depends on implementation as well as how soon the Government would be able to achieve it.

8. Examination Process: There was a problem of rote learning in the Indian education system. Most of the exams are designed in a way that we need to memorize things. As a result, everything that we learnt, evaporates in a few months.
So, the government offers a change through NEP 2020, that the exams would be designed a way that would not require much memorization or rote learning.



9. Multiple Entry- Exit Programme: After Class- XII there is a multiple entry and exit programme.
NEP 2020 includes another feature- say the degree is of four years, and
if a student drop out after studying 1 year, then he/she will get a certificate.
If a student drop out after studying 2 years, then he/she will get a Diploma.
After 3 years, he/she will get a Bachelor's Degree
and after 4 years- a Bachelor's Research Degree. A student would be able to drop midway and all the subjects the he/ she have studied for those years, he/she can take their credits and get it transferred to another degree.
This is very useful and already exists in most of the developed countries. It's great that this option would be available in India as well

* MA and MSc courses will last just one year for those with 4 years graduate degree, and two years for those with 3 years degree. This is again consistent with the international standard.

10. Doors Open For Foreign Universities: NEP 2020 gives permission to Top 100 Foreign Institutes to set up their campus within India.

11. New Standard For Teachers: NEP 2020 offers that A Common National Standard will be set up for all the teachers by 2022.

The policy also proposes to set the 4 years Integrated BEd degree to be the minimum qualification required to be a teacher by 2030.


1. Language: This new policy has been criticizes the most on the point of language. According to the policy, the education of a child until 5th grade and preferably till class 8 should be in home language, local language or the regional language. However, it is nowhere written that doing so is compulsory.
This point will restrict the movement of the people from one state to another.

2. Anti- Democratic: This policy is criticized of being anti- democratic. CPI(M) party opposed this policy most. They allege that the states were not consulted before making NEP 2020. Since education is a concurrent subject that comes under both the Centre as well as State list, the states should have been consulted more before introducing this policy.


3. Promote Centralization: One more controversy regarding NEP 2020 is that this policy promotes centralization because this policy has a point that states that a new teacher's training board will be set up for all kinds of teachers in the country and no state can change that. The power of decision making regarding education has been taken from the states and placed with the central government.

4. More Theoretical: Some points of criticism said that this policy is very theoretical. It changes things theoretically. But to implement them practically in real life is going to be very long drawn and difficult process. Because there are so many government schools where children in the 5th class have no teachers and sound infrastructure is not available in schools. so how are they going to impart vocational training and give the option of variety of subjects to children. This seems quite impossible.


New Education Policy 2020 is going to be a great reformation to the Indian Education System if implemented properly. The changes proposed by NEP 2020  being brought superficially are extremely difficult to implement in reality. It is to be seen in near future that how much of this policy is going to be implemented and what changes are seen in ground level in reality.